POLONA TRATNIK, TRANSUMETNOST

Transumetnost. Kultura in umetnost v sodobnih globalnih pogojih (ZIP-ISO distribucija izdaje na CD nosilcu)
 
 
 
Avtorica: Polona Tratnik
Naslov: Transumetnost
Vrsta gradiva: znanstvena monografija
Leto izida: 2010
Obseg:  164 strani
ISBN - 13: 978-961-270-032-4
 

Način citiranja: Tratnik, P. (2010). Transumetnost, Ljubljana: Pedagoški inštitut, Digitalna knjižnica, Dissertationes 10, http://193.2.222.157/Sifranti/StaticPage.aspx?id=78 (datum dostopa do spletne strani), stran v delu.
 
V monografiji so predstavljene spremembe, ki zadevajo umetnost in kulturo v obdobju zadnjega pol stoletja, s katerimi se kot v drugih družbenih poljih uveljavljajo principi mrežnega delovanja, hibridizacije, povečane stopnje interaktivnosti, zastiranje proizvajalca ali avtorja in s tem povezana večja pozornost do uporabnika ali sprejemnika (potrošnika, gledalca, bralca), višja stopnja družbene odgovornosti in refleksivnosti (ta se v umetnosti kaže z usmeritvijo v družbenokritične strategije in s povečanim interesom za sodobne znanosti in tehnologije), prehodnost, mobilnost, začasnost, odprtost, heterogenost in transdisciplinarnost, prehajanje družbenih polj, epistemološko pa predvsem negotovost (nedeterminiranost in neobjektivnost).
 Avtorica v monografiji obravnava transumetnost v navezavi na družbo, ki se s prehodom od moderne v postmoderno ustoliči kot postindustrijska, potrošniška, medijska, informacijska družba, družba elektronike, visoke tehnologije, pa tudi kot refleksivna družba in družba tveganja. Kontekstualizacija in širša, transdisciplinarna obravnava ji pomagata pri izrisovanju strukturalnih potez transumetnosti, pa tudi za prikaze njenih funkcij, poslanstev in možnosti. Premike opaža na različnih umetniških področjih: v vizualnih in intermedijskih umetnostih, filmu, glasbi, zvočnih eksperimentih, kibernetski umetnosti in drugih. Namesto na proizvodnjo zaključenih artefaktov (ki nastopajo kot blago), namenjenih kontemplaciji, se umetnost danes raje osredotoča na raziskovanje in pogosto rezultira v nematerialnih (procesualnih, začasnih) izidih. Za transumetnost so posebej zanimive izrazite težnje po preseganju moderne diferenciacije z novimi načini povezovanja umetnosti z znanostjo in tehnologijo. Kot oblike raziskovalnih praks takšne umetnosti uporabljajo sodobna izrazna orodja, tehnologije in specializirana okolja. Zaradi specialnih interesov in ciljev transumetniški projekti poleg umetnikov (katerih praksa, poklic sta se glede na moderne oblike bistveno spremenila) vključujejo tudi različne strokovnjake iz drugih družbenih polj, disciplin (nevroznanstvenike, kozmologe, biotehnologe itd.). Na ta način transumetnost vstopa v številne »neumetniške« diskurze, v zvezi s katerimi preizprašuje aktualna etična, kulturološka, antropološka in filozofska vprašanja – tako se pojavlja kot hibrid med umetnostjo, humanistiko, družboslovjem, naravoslovno znanostjo in tehnologijo. Projektno je večinoma zasnovana strukturno, funkcionalno in tehnološko zahtevno, potrebuje pa tudi močno in kompleksno produkcijsko infrastrukturo.
Večje pozornosti je v monografiji deležno vprašanje družbenokritične vloge umetnosti (v sodobnosti in v navezavi na zgodovinske avantgarde). Transumetnost reflektira nedavne znanstvene dosežke, rabo sofisticiranih tehnologij (npr. predstavlja alternativne rabe in/ali dekonstruira obstoječe tehnološko-diskurzivne sisteme), postmodernizacijske procese na različnih ravneh in predvsem izpostavlja aktualne družbene probleme (odpadki, revščina, nadzorovanje, potrošniška kultura), ob tem pa sodobni odporniški pristopi v kulturi skoraj ne morejo obiti splošne uveljavitve digitalizacije. S slednjo je povezan prav tako ključen nastop računalniške paradigme v kulturi, mrežno strukturiranje na vseh nivojih družbe (v političnem, gospodarskem in kulturnem smislu) ter razmah novih medijev, tehnologij in telekomunikacijskih sistemov. Vse to so ne nazadnje osnove za prehod od proizvodne k servisni paradigmi v ekonomiji in kulturi, ki se kaže tudi kot prehod od poblagovljenosti k potrošništvu. Umetniške prakse so pri tem tiste, ki skušajo vzpostaviti komunikacijo s subjekti (podvrženimi različnim ideologijam) in pri njih spodbuditi kritično zavest.
 
 

 
In the monograph the changes that concern art and culture in the last half century are discussed, when the following principles have been established in the social fields: networking, hybridization, increased level of interactivity, veiling the producer or the author and the related increased attention to the user or the recipient (the consumer, the viewer, the reader), an increased degree of social responsibility and reflexivity (in art this is evident in the orientation to social-critical strategies and with increased interest for contemporary sciences and technologies), transience, mobility, temporariness, openness, heterogeneity and transdisciplinarity, traversion of social fields and epistemologically above all the uncertainty (undetermination and nonobjectivity).
The author comprehends transart in relation to the society, which has been, transiting from modernity to postmodernity, put on the throne as the postindustrial, the consumer, the media, and as the informational society, as society of electronics, high technologies, as well as the reflexive and risk society. Contextualization and wider, transdisciplinary comprehension helps her drawing structural features of transart, as well as discussing its functions, missions and possibilities. The shifts are observed in several art spheres: in visual and intermedia arts, film, music, sound experiments, cyber arts and others. Today art is not concentrated on production of artifacts (which would functions as commodities) designed for contemplation, but is rather devoted to researching and often results in nonmaterial (processual, temporal) outcomes. For transart are especially interesting the explicit tendencies to exceed modern differentiation with new modes of connecting art to science and technology. As forms of research practices such arts use contemporary expressive tools, technologies and specialized environments. For the special interests and objectives transart projects include not only artists (whose practice, profession have changed much in comparison to modern forms) but also various professionals from other social fields, disciplines (neuroscientists, cosmologists, biotechnologists etc.). In such a manner transart in entering various “nonartistic” discourses in relation to which it questions actual ethical, cultural, anthropological and philosophical questions – it appears as a hybrid between art, humanities, social and natural sciences, and technology. The projects are mostly structurally, functionally and technologically demanding and need strong and complex production infrastructure.
There is more attention focused on the question of the socially critical role of art (in contemporaneity and in relation to the historical avant-gardes). Transart reflects the recent scientific achievements, the usage of sophisticated technologies (it presents for example alternative usages and/or deconstructs the existent technological-discursive systems), postmodernisation processes at different levels and it opens, above all, actual social problems (waste, poverty, the control, the consumer culture). However, contemporary resistance accessions in culture can almost not avoid the general presence of digitalization. The former is furthermore related to the equally important coming of the computer paradigm in economy and culture, which is at last but not least evident as a shift from commodification to consumerism. In such situation art practices are those social agents that try to communicate with the subjects (who are subjected to several ideologies) and stimulate their critical consciousness.